The Boeing 747-400

Airliner, Boeing, Aircraft, B-747, Jet

747-400 Foundation:

Powerplants were performance, and the key to aircraft capacity range, and were integrated from the 747-200B when the Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7Q became available. First ordered by Northwest Orient, but quickly followed by Braniff, Japan Air Lines, Singapore Airlines, and Avianca, the model, introducing lighter nacelles, provided a two- to three-percent decrease in fuel consumption.

While an increased capacity version was considered throughout the earliest days of the 747 program, these motors paved the way for reconsideration without the need to sacrifice scope or cargo loads for it.

Towards the end, studies performed in 1976 concentrated on a 23-foot fuselage stretch, achieved by way of seven-frame forwards and eight-frame aft insertions, together with a 27-foot upper deck improve, for a new combined class passenger capacity of 570, rather than the previous 440. Yet passenger demand throughout the late-1970s precluded the project and airline client consensus’ viability pointed to a stretch that was modest.

It comprised 2 upward-opening doors and 18 windows with evacuation slides. Even though it carried an 8,000-pound, or two-percent, structural weight growth, the differently simplified modification increased its six-abreast lodging from 32 to 69, attained by a brand new, straight, inner staircase that replaced the type’s signature spiral one.

Designated 747-300, it was provided as either a new-build version or a conversion of existing 747-200Bs, each of which factored into launching client Swissair’s June 1980 arrangement for four of the former and one of the latter. Powered by four 64,750 thrust-pound JT9D-7R4G2 motors, it flew a couple of decades later, on October 5, also was kind certified annually then on March 4 in an 833,000-pound gross weight.

While a capacity growth was offered by the change variant, it introduced neither range nor any sort of design enhancement.

Several factors caused reconsideration of a derivative of the 747.

Sales, foremost and first, was declining. Seven airframes in 1979’s production rate had been reduced to a trickle of just one.

Currency and advancement, second, hadn’t been preserved, a plan that had retained the 727 and 737 programs alive with innovative versions, and the later, especially, had spawned the Next Generation 737-300, -400, and -500 series.

Competition, thirdly, but not necessarily on an even-keel foundation, had started to emerge with step-change technology, as happened with the DC-10-30 and -40, whose achievement MD-11 introduced quieter, more fuel efficient engines and two-person digital cockpits. Airbus itself was going to unveil its twin- and quad-engine A330 and A340 designs.

Growth had changed into the Pacific from the Atlantic, with numbers of amounts and passengers of freight.

The remedy was originally envisioned as a variation of the 747-300 with Pratt and Whitney PW4000 or General Electric CF6-80C turbofans, an increased wingspan, and its resultantly increased wing integral fuel tank capacity.

Yet, the majority of the major, ancient 747 operators hunted far more than these simple power and dimensional increases packed in the projected 747-300A, prompting Boeing to embark upon a comprehensive reassessment project so the new version would be commensurate with late-20th century technology.

Devising, in actuality, a five-point list to create next-generation earnings, it sought to integrate state-of-the-art technology, considerably improve the passenger cabin, squirrel removal near me, increase the scope from 1,000 miles, decrease fuel consumption by up to 37-percent over that of the initial 747-100, and decrease operating costs by ten per cent.

Designated declared in May of 1985 and 747-400, it was a considerably improved aircraft.

Even though it retained the 231.10-foot overall length of all of the prior regular models and featured the stretched upper deck of the -300, it introduced a substantially modified wing. Built up of the 2000 aluminum and 7000 zinc set of aluminum alloys developed for the 757 and 767, which formed the torsion box upper and lower skins, and integrating graphite composites, it featured both a six-foot span increase and six-foot winglets which were apparently canted by 29 levels and had a 60-degree sweepback. Eliminating the need for a larger span improve, these area-rule designed apparatus exploited the vortex produced by the upper and lower pressure differential remix in the tip, raising lift and area, reducing drag, and keeping gate compatibility dimensions a larger stretch wouldn’t have achieved.

They facilitated the transportation of 40 passengers.

While the ailerons, spoilers, and dual-section, triple slotted trailing edge flaps remained exactly the same as those integrated on previous 747 versions, yet another factor camber leading edge flap has been set up, leading to three inboard Krueger apparatus from the origin to the inboard motors, five mid-wing ones involving the powerplants, and the new total of six between the outboard one and the tip.

The building materials increased the wing’s power between five and 13 per cent, yet reduced aircraft weight by up to 5,500 lbs. Aspect ratio was 7.7 and region was 5,825 square feet.

Another improvement that is 747-400 has been its powerplant. Because engine manufacturers had made considerable advancements in the design and development of innovative turbofans, particularly for long-range, widebody twins that were based upon enhanced reliability and thrust and decreased fuel consumption and noise, the hottest 747 version was 40-percent quieter than its -300 series predecessor. It was provided with poweprlants as had happened with the 747-200B.

Seven percent less fuel was swallowed by it upon which it was established than the JT9D.

The 58,000 thrust-pound General Electric CF6-80C2B1F, first specified by KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, provided a four-stage low pressure compressor matched to the fan, a core airflow which increased from 276 to 340 pounds per minute, and an overall pressure ratio of 30.4 to 1 generated from the 14-stage high pressure compressor.

The Rolls Royce RB.211-524, including three-shaft, wide-chord blades, was offered in two variations: the 58,000 thrust-pound -524G and the 60,000 thrust-pound 524H. Cathay Pacific ordered it.

All engines, irrespective of type, were attached to pylons that were redesigned.

While the aircraft was on the floor with a one, it may maintain a Fahrenheit cabin temperature.

Fuel, whose capacity varied between 53,985 and 57,285 US gallons for Pratt and Whitney and Rolls Royce engine-powered aircraft, and between 53,711 and 57,011 US gallons for General Electric powered types, was kept in the fuselage center section and two chief tanks per wing, together with reserve and port surge tanks. Although minor modifications were made to their detectors and plumbing, the 747-400’s major design feature was a 3,300-US gallon auxiliary tank at the 72-foot, 2.5-inch spanned horizontal tailplane, providing a 350 nautical mile growth. It wasn’t, however, used for in-flight center-of-gravity version.

Greater rudder authority, amending maximum deflection from a former 25- into a current 30-degrees, eased a ten-knot ground speed decrease where it may maintain the effectiveness.

While the 747-400 retained the exact same five-truck, 18-wheel configuration of the prior versions, it replaced the former steel brakes with carbon ones, which provided a 1,800-pound weight reduction, were rated for twice the amount of landings, and chilled quicker, climbing aircraft turn-around times. A wheel diameter increase was required by Bigger tires . Ai digital system was introduced.

Ice and rain protection surrounded total air temperature probes; window wipers, washers, and rain repellent; window warmth; pitot-static probes on either side; angle-of-attack detectors, again on both sides; wing anti-ice; and motor inlet cowl anti-ice.

Those on the wing surrounded the gas vent, the gravity gas vent, the fuel itself, and the fuel control panel on the left wing bottom.

Substantial improvements were made to the inside.

The cockpit, first of all, was transformed from a three- to a two-person one, with the fight engineer’s functions having been integrated in an overhead panel and these were automatically monitored.

Employing digital systems intended for the 757 and 767, it featured six eight-by-eight inch cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, comprising the principal combat display (PFD) and the navigation display (ND) placed side-by-side facing the captain and replicated to the first officer, and 2 centre engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS) displays.

A comprehensive data base, subdivided into navigation and performance groups, replaced the performance manuals and navigation charts, and facilitated the rapid, extremely precise calculations of any desired parameter in combination with the flight management computer (FMC).

Information was enterable and retrievable by way of the controller unit keypads.

When compared with the 971 lights, gauges, and switches of the first generation 747’s analog cockpit, the present -400’s electronic one featured just a third, or 365.

Boeing recorded its battle deck avionics baseline capacities as follows.

“8 x 8 incorporated displays: atmosphere data, primary flight and navigation tools; motor, subsystems, caution and warning alarms; systems status and synoptic (heads-down observation ).

“Advanced FMC software bundle: push management – autothrottle/thrust limitation; altitude/speed flight profile intervention through AFDS MCP; Nav radio tuning – remote and automatic; global nav data base capacity; applications improvements.

“Central maintenance computer system (CMCS): standardized subsystem sting with English language readout; interactive control of system LRU bite through MCDU; ports flight deck//avionic and related airplane systems.

“Improved dispatch reliability: redundant constraint of mode works for EFIS/EICAS/AFDS MCP; screen function shifting and triple EIFS/EICAS port components.

Besides two observer seats, a windowless crew rest compartment, including a couple of full size bunks, reading lights, and new air vents, enabled additional pilots to attain legal break periods on struggles that may span up to 18 hours. A similar, though much larger, cabin crew rest area, installed in the previously unutilized back roof in the last row of passenger seats to the rear pressure bulkhead and replacing the 747-300’s”Portakabin” one which had taken the place of around 20 revenue-generating passenger ones, was accessible by a door that was locked, three-step, and vertical ladder entryway. Incorporating ceiling light and insulation to simulate day and night cycles, it had been configured with quantities of sleeper chairs and bunks.

The redesigned interior, which introduced an innovative widebody look, featured recontoured ceilings and sidewalls; hidden lighting; self-supporting ceiling panels; bigger overhead side and centre storage compartments; outboard, seat track lockable modular galleys; modular, vacuum flushable toilets, whose waste was stored in four back tanks; plus a digital in-flight entertainment system with seat-back monitors; and five primary deck air conditioning zones with greater ventilation.

Access, as was provided on the 747-300, was through a stairway that is straight.

Class branch, density, ability, colour, fabric, and decoration varied according to client specification. A 416 tri-class configuration, for example, entailed 23 first class seats in a 61-inch pitch, 80 business class ones in a 39-inch pitch, and 313 coach class ones in a 32-inch pitch. A cabin adapting 455 coach seats and 497 42 class. Five hundred eleven provisioned using its galleys and lavatories and 406 trainer ones in a pitch, with the other 76 on the upper deck, could be subdivided into 42 business class seats in a pitch.

Maximum deck abreast seats in the four cabins on the other side of the nose was ten, with six to the deck with one aisle, and two aisles. Maximum passenger capacity was 624.

The 747-400’s lower deck hold quantity of 6,035 cubic feet has been subdivided into 5,190 cubic ft of unit loading device (ULD) distance and 845 of bulk or loose-load space, facilitating the loading of 16 forward and 14 aft LD-3 containers or five forward and four aft 96-by-125-inch pallets.

Range, in a cruise rate with reserves and 412 passengers, was miles.

Construction of the first 747-400 started in Everett, by which time Singapore, KLM, Lufthansa, Cathay Pacific, and British Airways had arranged 49 aircraft in mid-1986. The launch order, for ten of northwest, called for aircraft. Assembly happened a little over a year in September, as it marked the occasion of their rollout and the, on January 26, 1988, entailed a dual-location event. Another 58 aircraft, by Air and United France, had been ordered.

The system glitches, in addition to delivery delays that were powerplant and the part, postponed the PW4056-powered aircraft’s flight from March followed by Rolls Royce examples and General Electric in August and June. The GE airframe set a world weight record, leaving the runway.

Certification, after a flight test program, was achieved on January 9, 1989. Delivered to Northwest 17 days later and entering domestic service between Phoenix and Minneapolis on February 9 for team familiarization purposes, the first 747-400, driven by PW4056 turbofans, was put in the Pacific-spanning heavens it was intended for, from New York to Tokyo, on June 1.

Those were comprised by first deliveries to Lufthansa and KLM, on, respectively and May 23 also to Cathay Pacific on June 8 with Rolls Royce powerplants, and with General Electric motors. From London, the kind set a world distance record on the August 17 delivery flight to Qantas to Sydney, covering the 9,688 miles in 20 hours.

By May 25, 1990, 279 firm orders had been attracted by the 747-400.

747-400 Versions:

Boeing offered variations of the 747-400 as had happened with the 747, and especially with its -200 B series.

The first of them was that the 747-400 Combi Featuring combinations of primary deck passenger and freight loads, the latter in two aft zones, it comprised a 120- by 130-inch aft, port, upward-opening doorway, reinforced flooring, and cargo loading system, easing several load combinations, such as 268 passengers and seven pallets, 290 passengers and dix pallets, or up to 13 pallets. The type was delivered on September 1, 1989 to KLM.

Considered an counterpart to the earlier 747SR for brief Japanese businesses, it provided a maximum takeoff weight, and omitted the wing extensions and winglets, was powered by thrust motors, though it was certifiable up to 870,000 pounds.

The, which was versions’ 747 airframe, first flew in March of 1991 and has been sent to Japan Air Lines in October. Another operator, all-Nippon Airlines, configured the aircraft for 542 economy class passengers and 27 company.

Still another version, the 747-400F, replaced the 747-200F, whose creation was stopped after a launch order was put by Air France for five. Devoid of facilities and passenger windows, and using -200 the 747-100, and – SP’s upper deck, it featured a crew rest area and side cargo doors, a flight ladder, and both nose. It might carry 26 tons of freight 1,200 miles farther.

Volume totaled feet, such as 21,347 on the deck, 5,600 from the deck holds, and 520 in the majority. Two pallets might be accommodated on the deck.

The 747 constructed, the, first took on May 4, and was rolled out on February 25, 1993. The maximum gross weight of the type was 875,000 lbs. Cargolux inaugurated the kind into service Since its order had been canceled by Air France.

The previous version was the 747-400ER, intended, as its designation suggests, for”extended range” operations.

Powered by PW4062 motors, the -400ER had a maximum takeoff weight that is 910,000-pound a weight, and a landing weight.

From January 1, 2002, 41 operators had arranged 630 747-400s of all versions. Production totaled 694.

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